During 17 so-called dome-building eruptions, from October 18, 1980 to October 26, 1986, thick pasty lava oozed out of the volcanic vent much like toothpaste from a tube.
Dacite lava is too thick to flow very far, so it simply piled up around the vent forming the mountain-like dome, which now sits as a plug over the volcanic orifice.
Another evening, another eerie glow atop Italy's Mount Etna.
The eruptions rocketing from volcanic craters atop Etna's summit suffuse dark nights with a fiery aura as lava jets into the air.
An Italian study led by Maria Pareschi of the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Pisa indicates that a volcanic collapse of the eastern flank of Mount Etna 8,500 years ago would likely have caused a 10-storey (40 m or 130 ft) tsunami to engulf some Mediterranean coastal cities within hours.
Some scientists point to the apparent abandonment of Atlit Yam around the same time as further evidence that such a tsunami did indeed occur.
The dome (Figure 1) sits like a small mountain (roughly 3/4 mile in length and 1000 feet high) directly over the volcanic vent, which is at the south end of the huge horseshoe-shaped crater blasted out of the mountain by the May 18, 1980 eruption.Mount's Etna's busy pace produces enough lava each year to fill Chicago's Willis Tower (the former Sears Tower), a 2012 study found.Whether it's a few fast-flowing lava flows or a fiery fountain, the volcano's outbursts have been a constant companion for Sicilians for more than 2,000 years.Remains of rectangular houses and hearth-places have been found, along with a well that currently lies 10.5 m (35 ft) below sea-level, constructed of dry-stone walling, with a diameter of 1.5 m (5 ft) and a depth of 5.5 m (20 ft) lower.The fill contained flints, artifacts of ground stone and bone and animal bones in two separate layers.Yet geoscientists are still trying to figure out why Etna erupts so frequently, and in so many different ways.